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Numerical Study on Hydrogen–Gasoline Dual-Fuel Spark Ignition Engine


Hydrogen, as a suitable and clean energy carrier, has been long considered a primary fuel or in combination with other conventional fuels such as gasoline and diesel. Since the density of hydrogen is very low, in port fuel-injection configuration, the engine’s volumetric efficiency reduces due to the replacement of hydrogen by intake air. Therefore, hydrogen direct in-cylinder injection (injection after the intake valve closes) can be a suitable solution for hydrogen utilization in spark ignition (SI) engines. In this study, the effects of hydrogen direct injection with different hydrogen energy shares (HES) on the performance and emissions characteristics of a gasoline port-injection SI engine are investigated based on reactive computational fluid dynamics. Three different injection timings of hydrogen together with five different HES are applied at low and full load on a hydrogen– gasoline dual-fuel SI engine. The results show that retarded hydrogen injection timing increases the concentration of hydrogen near the spark plug, resulting in areas with higher average temperatures, which led to NOX emission deterioration at −120 Crank angle degree After Top Dead Center (CAD aTDC) start of injection (SOI) compared to the other modes. At −120 CAD aTDC SOI for 50% HES, the amount of NOX was 26% higher than −140 CAD aTDC SOI. In the meanwhile, an advanced hydrogen injection timing formed a homogeneous mixture of hydrogen, which decreased the HC and soot concentration, so that −140 CAD aTDC SOI implied the lowest amount of HC and soot. Moreover, with the increase in the amount of HES, the concentrations of CO, CO2 and soot were reduced. Having the HES by 50% at −140 CAD aTDC SOI, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM), CO and CO2 were reduced by 96.3%, 90% and 46%, respectively. However, due to more complete combustion and an elevated combustion average temperature, the amount of NOX emission increased drastically.

Related subjects: Applications & Pathways

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