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Numerical Characterization of Under-expanded Cryogenic Hydrogen Gas Jets


High-resolution direct numerical simulations are conducted for under-expanded cryogenic hydrogen gas jets to characterize the nearfield flow physics. The basic flow features and jet dynamics are analyzed in detail, revealing the existence of four stages during early jet development, namely, (a) initial penetration, (b) establishment of near-nozzle expansion, (c) formation of downstream compression, and (d) wave propagation. Complex acoustic waves are formed around the under-expanded jets. The jet expansion can also lead to conditions for local liquefaction from the pressurized cryogenic hydrogen gas release. A series of simulations are conducted with systematically varied nozzle pressure ratios and systematically changed exit diameters. The acoustic waves around the jets are found to waken with the decrease in the nozzle pressure ratio. The increase in the nozzle pressure ratio is found to accelerate hydrogen dispersion and widen the regions with hydrogen liquefaction potential. The increase in the nozzle exit diameter also widens the region with hydrogen liquefaction potential but slows down the evolution of the flow structures.

Funding source: The research was financially supported by the PRESLHY project, which has received funding from the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 Joint Undertaking under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Grant Agreement No. 779613. The high-performance computing was partially supported by NSFC under the Grant No. 51806179, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and the Basic Research Plan of Natural Science in Shaanxi Province.
Related subjects: Safety
Countries: United Kingdom

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