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Optimal Scheduling of Multi-energy Type Virtual Energy Storage System in Reconfigurable Distribution Networks for Congestion Management


The virtual energy storage system (VESS) is one of the emerging novel concepts among current energy storage systems (ESSs) due to the high effectiveness and reliability. In fact, VESS could store surplus energy and inject the energy during the shortages, at high power with larger capacities, compared to the conventional ESSs in smart grids. This study investigates the optimal operation of a multi-carrier VESS, including batteries, thermal energy storage (TES) systems, power to hydrogen (P2H) and hydrogen to power (H2P) technologies in hydrogen storage systems (HSS), and electric vehicles (EVs) in dynamic ESS. Further, demand response program (DRP) for electrical and thermal loads has been considered as a tool of VESS due to the similar behavior of physical ESS. In the market, three participants have considered such as electrical, thermal and hydrogen markets. In addition, the price uncertainties were calculated by means of scenarios as in stochastic programming, while the optimization process and the operational constraints were considered to calculate the operational costs in different ESSs. However, congestion in the power systems is often occurred due to the extreme load increments. Hence, this study proposes a bi-level formulation system, where independent system operators (ISO) manage the congestion in the upper level, while VESS operators deal with the financial goals in the lower level. Moreover, four case studies have considered to observe the effectiveness of each storage system and the simulation was modeled in the IEEE 33-bus system with CPLEX in GAMS.

Funding source: This research is supported by the research grant of the University of Tabriz (number 1744). This work was supported from DTE Network+ funded by EPSRC grant reference EP/S032053/1.
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways

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