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A Review on Ports' Readiness to Facilitate International Hydrogen Trade


The existing literature on the hydrogen supply chains has knowledge gaps. Most studies focus on hydrogen production, storage, transport, and utilisation but neglect ports which are nexuses in the supply chains. To fill the gap, this paper focuses on ports' readiness for the upcoming hydrogen international trade. Potential hydrogen exporting and importing ports are screened. Ports' readiness for hydrogen export and import are reviewed from perspectives of infrastructure, risk management, public acceptance, regulations and standards, and education and training. The main findings are: (1) liquid hydrogen, ammonia, methanol, and LOHCs are suitable forms for hydrogen international trade; (2) twenty ports are identified that could be first movers; among them, twelve are exporting ports, and eight are importing ports; (3) ports’ readiness for hydrogen international trade is still in its infancy, and the infrastructure construction or renovation, risk management measures, establishment of regulations and standards, education and training all require further efforts.

Funding source: The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the International Association of Maritime Universities (research project number 20220205).
Keywords: Export ; Import ; Port ; Shipping ; Supply Chain
Related subjects: Policy & Socio-Economics

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