Globally, the accelerating use of renewable energy sources, enabled by increased efficiencies and reduced costs, and driven by the need to mitigate the effects of climate change, has significantly increased research in the areas of renewable energy production, storage, distribution and end-use. Central to this discussion is the use of hydrogen, as a clean, efficient energy vector for energy storage. This review, by experts of Task 32, “Hydrogen-based Energy Storage” of the International Energy Agency, Hydrogen TCP, reports on the development over the last 6 years of hydrogen storage materials, methods and techniques, including electrochemical and thermal storage systems. An overview is given on the background to the various methods, the current state of development and the future prospects. The following areas are covered; porous materials, liquid hydrogen carriers, complex hydrides, intermetallic hydrides, electro-chemical storage of energy, thermal energy storage, hydrogen energy systems and an outlook is presented for future prospects and research on hydrogen-based energy storage

Funding source: Financial support from the EU HORIZON2020/RISE Program, project HYDRIDE4MOBILITY, is gratefully acknowledged by VAY, JBvC, RVD, MD and MVL. MVL acknowledges financial support from the Department of Science and Innovation (DSI; Hydrogen South Africa/HySA Pro- gram, projects KP6eS02 and KP6eS03), as well as the National Science Foundation (NRF; grant number 109092) of Republic of South Africa. References [1] M. Becher, M. Haluska, M. Hirscher, A. Quintel, V. Skakalova, U. Dettlaff- Weglikovska, et al., Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes, Compt. Rendus Phys. 4 (9) (2003) 1055e1062. [2] G.G. Tibbetts, G.P. Meisner, C.H. Olk, Hydrogen storage capacity of carbon nanotubes, filaments, and vapor-grown fibers, Carbon 39 (15) (2001) 2291e2301. [3] D.P. Broom, M. Hirscher, Irreproducibility in hydrogen storage material M. Hirscher et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 827 (2020) 15354828

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